Kokas, Klara. (1970). Kodaly’s concept of music education. Council for Research in Music Education, 22, 49-56. (Fall).
- Studies in Hungarian music education over the past twenty years have demonstrated that children who experience daily singing in schools display better results in other school subjects than children who have the usual amount of school music experience. The author explores the psychological bases for this transfer effect. Singing is the basic musical activity, and through it the child experiences the structure of a work and absorbs it, a process that constitutes the building blocks of the musical “mother tongue” and provides the basis for his creative ability. Attention-developing rhythmic exercises produce observable results in mathematics and a good ear for music helps spelling. But beyond this, “music education seems to promote the development of psychological functions of a higher order whose effect goes far beyond the special content and material music.” Musical training serves to create an optimal balance of cortical and subcortical activity and creates an active readiness for dealing with new tasks. The importance of early childhood musical training is emphasized, particularly because it helps develop perceptual and motor learnings.–Merry Texter.
Madsen, Clifford K; Forsythe, Jere L. (1973). Effect of contingent music listening on increases of mathematical responses. Journal of Research in Music Education, 21(2), 176-186.
- This study was designed to determine: 1) whether contingent music listening would significantly increase correct responses to mathematical problems compared to other activities and reinforcers and 2) whether there are significant differences between the reinforcing effects of two types of music listening activities. 88 sixth grade subjects from an open middle school were randomly assigned to one of the following reward groups by accumulating earned contingency payoffs through correct responses to math problems independently completed during 20 minute work periods: dance-listening, earphone-listening, math control games, and contact contol. A survey of subjects musical musical preferences was used to select music for the listening rewards. Data analyzed indicated contingent music listening can effectively reinforce nonmusical academic behavior and that the reinforcing effects of social and individual listening, as represented by dance and earphone listening activities, were not significantly different. Thus, individual music listening, more easily dispensed and supervised, might be just as effective in motivating independent academic work.–Rosa F. Stolz.