Leithwood, K A; Fowler, W. (1971). Complex motor learning in four year olds. Child Development, 42(3), 781-792.

This study compared the effects of 4 months of gymnastic training upon complex and simple gross motor abilities and general cognitive and psychosocial functioning in twelve advantaged and sixteen disadvantaged four year olds with music training and no treatment. Using an analytic-integrative method, all experimental subjects learned to combine cognitively and coordinate sequences of a complexity unapproached in previous, maturation-oriented research. Differences between motor- and nonmotor-trained groups were (a) highly significant (.001) in complex (advantaged greater than disadvantaged) but not simple motor learning, and (b) signifcant (.10) in analytic cognitive style (field independence) and certain aspects of psychosocial functioning. (23 References)–Journal Abstract.

 Hollander, Fred M; Juhrs, Patricia D. (1974). Orff-Schulwerk: An effective treatment tool with autistic children. Journal of Music Therapy, 11(1), 1-12.

Thirty autistic children, ages 4 – 16, were grouped in Orff classes which met three times weekly at Napa State Hospital in California. The Orff method emphasized rhythm in speech and body movement, and the Orff-Schulwerk is shown to be an effective form of therapy for autistic children who generally respond to music and nonverbal commands.–Rosa F. Stolz.



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