Social Emotional


Kaarina R. Marjanen. “Early musical experiences as inspiration for early interaction” Arts and skills – Source of Well-being (Eds. Ruokonen, I & Ruismäki, H.). Research report. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, Department of Teacher Education 330 (2011): 57-70.

Successful communication underspins the success of all human endeavours. In this study, early inetaction with music in its many forms and connections was observed. Music, in the current investigation, was considered as a way of communication, constructed of musical elements, which was the reason for investigating the connections of music education and mother-child interaction. The musical-emotional communication in the groups of (pregnant) mothers and (fetus) babies was compared in the investigation: 1) the group for both pre- and postnatal musical sessions, 2) the group only for postnatal musical sessions, and 3) the group for no musical sessions at all. The study method was triangulation, with systematic video observation as the main method. The prenatal musical experiences were found to be especially significant for the mother-infant bonding based on vocal, visual, bodily and emotional evidence: early interaction can be musically supported.


Humpal, M (1991). The Effects of an Integrated Early Childhood Music Program on Social Interaction Among Children with Handicaps and Their Typical Peers. Journal of Music Therapy,  2(3), 161.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated early childhood music program on social interaction among children with handicaps and their typical peers. A field test was conducted with 15 students (age 4) from a typical preschool, and 12 students (ages 3 to 5) with moderate levels of mental retardation from a county developmental center. The children came together once weekly at the typical preschool for integrated music sessions. For 15 sessions following the pretests, the music therapist employed specific strategies to foster interaction. A trend analysis indicated that interaction among the children increased following the music therapy intervention phase. A questionnaire was submitted to the five staff members involved with the project; all agreed that the program had facilitated peer interaction and had fostered acceptance of differences among individuals.


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